Article Comparison: Migrant Caravan

In the media today, there are multiple different types of articles from news sources that discuss about the same event that is occurring hourly. Some articles may present a more detailed explanation of the event or issue. Others may express more opinion-based articles to the readers. For this article comparison, I will be analyzing pieces by the New York Times and Fox News in regards to the recent updates of the Migrant Caravan to the U.S. border. This issue concerns of a large group of Central American migrants that are arriving at the U.S-Mexico border after crossing Mexico and parts of Central America. These immigrants are staying in temporary shelters located in the border cities of Tijuana and Mexicali. The main issue with this event is that there is an overflow of illegal immigrants that are looking for refuge in the U.S. because their countries are too dangerous at the moment.

While analyzing different types of articles that discuss about the same event, I decided to focus into the New York Times and Fox News articles because they present two different sides of what is occurring on with the migrants that are trying to find refuge here in the United States. First, both articles do cover well the highlights of what instigated these migrants even to immigrate over here and what has led to that point. This event follows with the concept by Bodystun (2013) that we learned in class of what is called the Alarm/Patrol Hybrid Model. Bodystun (2013), presents how this model should operate, but a model of how it does operate. While looking into this model, the articles that I focused on fell under the patrol-only model. The way this event fell on the patrol-only model is by focusing on the current event and will have negative repercussions on future generations with immigration policy.

In the New York Times, the article goes into more depth of what the emotion and the experience of immigrating to the border cities. This article gives examples of multiple migrant’s personal experiences and reasons as to why they left their countries. The article continues with explaining how there are as many as 10,000 migrants from this caravan that are arriving in Tijuana. Moreover, it was described that the number of migrants the shelter to almost 2,500 this weekend with only room for 1,000 people. Then, the article continues describing what is occurring in the border city of Mexicali of how there are about 3,400 estimated immigrants. As the article continues, the journalist describes how migrants are walking a mile from the shelter to enter their names on a waiting list for an asylum interview. As the article continues its evident that there is a lot of raw emotion displayed while reading. Overall, this article describes different sides of the event showing sides of migrant’s experience traveling to get to the border city and how they are being treated while arriving to the asylum.

In comparison, the Fox News article describes the same details of what the immigrants go through while traveling to the border cities. The difference between the two articles is that this focuses more on the one-third of migrants in the caravan that are being treated for health, issues. The article goes more in-depth on how the migrants came with the caravan who are suffering from respiratory infections, tuberculosis, chickenpox, and other serious health issues which are causing the city shelters to use more of the funds that they had for these type of situations. It is said that the Tijuana mayor, Juan Manuel Gastelum said that the city has enough money to assist the migrants only for a couple more days. The money that they have does not cover the overflow of migrants and that their $30,000 fund is about to run out. Lastly, the Fox article emphasizes on the problems and dire living conditions that some of the migrant’s experience. Emphasizing on how some of the migrants are having to go back to their countries because they cannot stand living in these conditions.

Overall, these two articles describe in detail what is occurring at the U.S.-Mexico border with the migrants that arriving looking for asylum. They both cover the real emotions of what the migrants are going through as arriving at the border. As well as, the sacrifices that they go through just so that they can have a better life and escape the horrors that occur in their countries.

Honor code: I have acted with honesty and integrity in producing this work and am unaware of anyone who has not. -Daniella G. Orcés

Article Comparison: Migrant Caravan

Exploring Bias 1

The article I chose to write about for my exploring bias post is from Fox News and the article is titled “Despite heat at home, Trump approval ratings tower above embattled European leaders” Based purely on the title, we can see that this article will contain bias. The immediate reaction I had was “what are they basing these approval ratings on?”, so that made me more intrigued on what the article was about. The article begins by saying that there is civil unrest on the streets in some countries, so compared to them, he is doing great. I counter that point and see bias in it because there is civil unrest in this country. We have had unrest due to gun laws, Black Lives Matter, and Women’s Rights, so I don’t think it’s fair to say he is “riding high” compared to other countries. The article begins to make some stronger points when looking at actual approval ratings and noting that Trump is sitting right under a 50% approval rating while World Leaders such as French President Emmanuel Macron and British Prime Minister Theresa May are below that by a lot. The article is using a Fox poll to base their numbers off of. This means that this poll could be biased and skewed since Fox is a right-leaning news source.

The article later states that Prime Minister May is “icey” towards Trump. This is language that is mostly used for women, so it is inherently misogynistic in my opinion. By Fox using this kind of language, whether they meant to or not, puts Trump at an advantage based word choice. Women who assert themselves are considered “icey” whereas men who are assertive, such as Trump are considered strong leaders. The article goes on to state that the political climate in the US is much more divided than it has been in years past. I agree with this part of the article, but the reasoning is just because he has been able to keep his base due to nontraditional tactics. In the article, it states, “It’s important to recognize that a lot of international leaders are faring much worse [than Trump]. And Macron is a great example. Huge expectations, and [he] has dashed them at most every turn,”. Trump has seemed to deliver what his base wants, and that is why his approval ratings are so high.

While there are issues in European countries, there is ideological bias based on skewed polls and biased writing. This is frustrating to read because while it may seem like Trump’s approval ratings are doing well, he is still caused a huge amount of unrest that is being ignored by right-wing media.


Work cited

Lott, Maxim. “Despite Heat at Home, Trump Approval Ratings Tower above Embattled European Leaders’.” Fox News, FOX News Network, Dec. 2018,

Exploring Bias 1

Article Comparison #2: Fox News v. CNN

The recent passing of former President George H.W. Bush has been surrounded by lots of media coverage. Consequentially, news stations have continued to show their political biases when covering the non-controversial event of a U.S. President passing away. For this article comparison, I will be analyzing CNN and Fox News, looking at how they reported Trump’s appearance at Bush’s funeral.
Reporting for CNN are journalists Kevin Liptak and Jeff Zeleny (2018) in their article entitled, “With new member Trump, uneasy presidents club to convene at Bush funeral.” Through this title, it is easy to see that Trump will be the focal point of the article. In addition, this title insinuates that Trump’s presence is creating tension, which is not an objective idea. At the beginning of the article, Liptak and Zeleny (2018) mention how Trump criticized the Bush family during his run for presidency, leading to an awkward encounter between Trump, his predecessors, and their respective families. The journalists assume that because of this tension, there will not likely be any “camaraderie between Trump and the men who served before him.” While this idea may be true, the journalists are not showing much objectivity when talking about what this funeral means to the families and former Presidents in attendance. Liptak and Zeleny go on to talk about the former presidents, mentioning once again that all predecessors before Trump are “all men.” While this is a fact, it seems like this piece of information is insinuating something about the absolute lack of women serving in the Oval Office. This remark by the journalists is a subtle one, but in my opinion, this seems like a passive attack on the men who were voted into presidency. The lack of women in the Oval Office certainly does deserve some discussion, and should be looked at, but this does not seem like the article to make that discussion. Throughout the rest of the article, the journalists recount the tension between Trump and his predecessors, further putting Trump in a bad light amidst former President Bush’s funeral. This type of bias is typical of a left-leaning news station like CNN, but I think pointing out the biases and somewhat lack of objectivity is important. There is no doubt that we will see opposite biases when looking at the Fox News article next.
Kaitlyn Schallhorn (2018) writes about the same event as CNN in her article entitled, “At George H.W. Bush’s funeral, Trump, Clintons don’t shake hands.” While this title conveys some tension between the Clintons and Trump, the title does not explicitly use words that further that implication. I do not detect any bias in the title. However, the article goes on to explain the “noticeable lack of warmth between the commander-in-chief and the woman he defeated to win the white house.” This quote does reveal a lack of objectivity when talking about the tension and “lack of warmth,” similar to the CNN article. One thing that the Fox News article does that the CNN article does not, is mention the condolences that President Trump conveyed to the Bush family on Twitter. Since Fox News is conservative, I expected this sort of report on Trump so that he appears respectful to Fox’s mostly conservative audience. Most of this article is dedicated to talking about the tension between Trump and Clinton, mentioning the presidential election of 2016. In comparison to the Fox article, CNN tends to talk about all predecessors of the Oval Office. In addition, CNN looks more in-depth to the inner-party tension between Trump and the Bush family, while discounting the condolences that Trump expressed on Twitter in regards to George H.W. Bush’s death.
Works Cited

Liptak, Kevin and Jeff Zeleny. “With new member Trump, uneasy presidents club to convene at Bush funeral.” CNN, December 5, 2018. Accessed December 5, 2018.

Schallhorn, Kaitlyn. “At George H.W. Bush’s funeral, Trump, Clintons don’t shake hands.” Fox News, December 5, 2018. Accessed December 5, 2018.

I have acted with honesty and integrity in producing this work and am unaware of anyone who has not.
Winston Cook 12/5/18

Article Comparison #2: Fox News v. CNN

Exploring Bias: ABC News

Media bias can take many forms. When one first thinks about media bias, they probably consider the biases that create calls of ‘fake news’: ideological, racial/class, or selection bias. However, there are many biases that seem less offensive and hurtful, but are just as powerful. For my second ‘Exploring Bias’ post, I will be evaluating the bias of an ABC news article that is not politics-centric. The article was written soon after the new ‘Captain Marvel’ trailer had dropped. It gives an overall description of the trailer and why it is so important to the Marvel Cinematic Universe.

I chose this specific article for several reasons. After seeing ESPN tweet the trailer, I realized how important ownership is in media. I was genuinely so surprised to see the trailer on ESPN’s timeline even though we had read the Gilens-Hertzman article about corporate ownership. ESPN, like ABC News, is a Disney-owned company; Disney also owns Marvel. Disney is one of the large business conglomerates that controls multiple news organizations in various media spheres. When looking strictly at the ABC News article, ownership bias is extremely clear in numerous ways. For a start, this article about the Captain Marvel trailer is one of many articles about Marvel on the ABC News website; ‘Marvel’ is its own subcategory.

A second reason of obvious ownership bias is the trailer placed at the top of the article. The trailer is included in a segment pulled from ‘Good Morning America’, an ABC News product, which features anchors talking about the film as well as an interview with Brie Larson, the lead. This slightly relates to what Gilens and Hertzman discuss in their article; media companies with TV programs as well as newspaper (or online newspapers) programs cover the same news and they sometimes overlap. This also furthers the ownership bias because Good Morning America is a product of ABC News, which is owned by Disney, who owns Marvel.

When analyzing the words and phrases the author uses in this article, ownership bias is still prevalent. The title of the article starts off by praising the trailer and upcoming movie as “featur[ing] incredible action”. This is one of several praises used by the author to influence the reader into thinking the ‘Captain Marvel’ trailer is amazing. Throughout the article, the author details the developments in the plot that the trailer has made. Likewise, a couple tweets are embedded, both from the ‘Captain Marvel’ Twitter account. These tweets encourage the audience to engage with the tweets and follow the Twitter account, benefitting Marvel, Disney, and ABC News. Personally, the most interesting part of the article is the disclaimer at the very end. It states “Marvel Studios is owned by ABC News’ parent company Disney”. I have never noticed this disclaimer at the end of any articles I have read but I think it makes the ownership bias obvious. While ABC News might be required to state their affiliation to Disney and Marvel, many regular citizens might not know the connection without reading this disclaimer.

Due to the non-political nature of this article, many biases are not present. However, the ownership bias demonstrated by the author and by ABC News is apparent. In order to understand this bias, one must have previous knowledge of which companies are owned by which and the effect that has on news. Understanding ownership bias is key to being able to effectively analyze a news source.

Gilens, Martin, and Craig Hertzman. “Corporate Ownership and News Bias: Newspaper Coverage of the 1996 Telecommunications Act.” The Journal of Politics 62, no. 2 (2000): 369-86. doi:10.1111/0022-3816.00017.


I have acted with honesty and integrity in producing this work and am unaware of anyone who has not. Hannah Thompson

Exploring Bias: ABC News

Article Comparison: Stone and the Fifth

For this assignment, I analyzed a Fox News article and an NBC article that portrayed Roger stone utilizing his Fifth Amendment right, which is known as your right to remain silent. Mueller has currently targeted Stone as a candidate to testify against Trump. Stone decided and announced that he would not be testifying only one say after Trump tweeted his praises and saying that Stone would “never testify” against him. The main differences between these articles included how the author utilized framing, the amounts of speculation, and the overall content. Despite these, there remained some similarities, such as the creation of a storyline that is set up for the continuation and the use of the same quotations in some instances. These methods produce extremely different results in the articles, creating a variance in objectivity. In these articles, I used concepts from Making the News and “News: The Politics of Illusion” to identify framing and the concepts from Losing the News to identify objectivity.

The Fox News article took an incredibly biased and speculative approach in order to describe the events involved with the reasoning for Stone using the Fifth Amendment. Author Gregg Re hinted at ideas of criminal activity that Stone could be involved with, using words filled with connotation to lead the reader to the presumption that Roger Stone is hiding something. This is a subtle means of framing but is incredibly effective because, as a reader, it is hard to pick up on. To further assumptions of Stone’s guilt, Re says, “In the past, [Trump] has suggested that people who plead the Fifth Amendment have something to hide.” Because of Fox News’ conservative bias, a reference to the president is more concrete evidence than a quotation from Mueller. These assumptions of criminality are prevalent throughout the paper, especially when Re reminds readers that Stone told people in Florida that he “actually [had] communicated with Assange,” the founder of WikiLeaks. In addition to this framing, Re sets the article up to allow for the continuation and for a storyline to form. Nothing he says throughout the article is final and leads the reader to believe that the network will keep them updated on changes within the story. This allows for Fox to stay relevant and keep a constant influx of earnings. Overall, this story is both an alarm and a democratic watchdog. It is loud and alerts the public that there may be fraud in many aspects of this case, however, it also presents clear and factual evidence to substantiate its claims and keep readers informed on the events that are related. This article cannot be read objectively due to the heavy use of framing and Re’s implications and speculations that Stone is hiding criminal actions.

The NBC article that covers the same topic is staged much differently. Not only is it substantially shorted, but it also leaves no room for speculation and is mostly objective in nature. According to Jones, objectivity is found in pieces that include no propaganda, no sensationalism, and no bias, among other things. This piece checks all of these boxes through simply presenting the facts associated with Stone invoking the Fifth Amendment. The sentences were short and declarative, leaving very little means to create speculation and insert biases. Many of the small paragraphs are direct quotations from either Stone or his lawyer and details are included down to the time of events taking place. This article differs greatly from the previous one due to its lack of embellishment.

Despite differences in content, there are many similarities within these articles. Both stood somewhere in between alarm and patrol by giving both factual and relevant information while keeping track of the case in order to sniff out dishonesty or corruption. In addition to this both mentioned that invoking the Fifth Amendment is meant to avoid self-criminalization, however, the extents that they read into this differs greatly. Because of this watchdog model, both articles set themselves up to stay with the story and keep the public updated on any changes within the case. The differences in these articles, however, come with their own set of implications. Readers will be more drawn to the use of framing seen in the Fox article because it puts an interesting spin on the same information that they have been reading from other sources. Because of Re’s disguised means of implying Stone’s guilt, readers could subconsciously attach themselves to this idea and take it as true, creating a wave of misinformation and leading to a less informed public.




Jones, Alex S. Losing the News, (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2010).

Bennet, W. Lance 2009. ‘News: The Politics of Illusion” in The Lanahan Readings in Media and Politics. Lewis S. Ringel, Ed. Baltimore, MD: Lanahan, pgs. 173-184.

Boydstun, Amber E. Making the News, (Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2013


Article Comparison: Stone and the Fifth

2nd Article Comparison: The Informational Biases of Michael Flynn’s Imprisonment or Lack Thereof

This semester we noted that information biases exist in the news and are not always constructive for democracy as outlined by Lance Bennett in his chapter “News: The Politics of Illusion”. I utilized this notion when reading two article about special council Robert Mueller’s recommendation for former Lt. General, Michael Flynn’s to not receive any prison time for his crime of perjury due to his cooperation and information on other on-going investigations. While consuming these news stories I noted that they varied greatly in their framing and coverage of Flynn’s recommended prison time or lack thereof.

For instance, the ABC News article titled, “Citing ‘substantial assistance’ to probe, Mueller recommends no prison time for former Trump adviser Michael Flynn”, begins with a quote from Robert Mueller stating his advocation for limited to no jail time for Flynn as a result of his “substantial assistance” in various investigations. Next, a brief history of Flynn’s crimes of perjury are reviewed and his impending sentencing date are also included. After this, however, the ABC News article then begins to take an increasingly different view from the New York Times article. The ABC News article begins to note that the relieved and happy reactions of Flynn’s family and quotes a source as stating that “jail time wouldn’t be a good thing for [Flynn]” which ultimately offer no real information and could be viewed as a personalization bias, or the “tendency to downplay the big social, economic or political picture in favor of the human trials, tragedies, and triumphs that sit at the surface of events”. Additionally, this personalization was noted again when the article some what unrelated to the overall content of the article includes that family and friends of Flynn were seen leading chants of “Lock her up!” at campaign rallies in 2016 and conveys that “Flynn’s downfalls has caused him deep pain, friends and family said”. This is followed by quotes from President Trump regarding Flynn’s personality and his actions. Ultimately, the article comes to a close after alluding to the fact that similar statements could be made for others such as Paul Manafort and Michael Cohen before Friday.

Contrastingly, the New York Times article titled, “Michael Flynn Was a Key Cooperator and Should Serve Little Prison Time, Mueller Says”, takes a different approach when discussing the issue of sentencing with regards to Michael Flynn. This article begins much like that of the ABC News article, including the quote from Mueller with regards to Flynn’s sentencing and his justifications for that recommendation. The New York Times article then continues by giving a brief recount of the events that led up to Flynn’s act of perjury. The New York Times article also notes that little was heard or reported on Flynn since his guilty plea was announced last December. This background provides some context that allows reminds or teaches readers about Flynn’s professional and personal history, particularly in relation to the Trump administration and the White House. This history does work to provide a greater context of this event, however, looks primarily at the events concerning Flynn from the last two to three years and are thus limited in their scope. Additionally, the remainder of the article does little to put Flynn’s acts and their consequences into a greater significance for the future. It is for this reason that I would argue that this article, although helpful for brief context, does not take into account the ways in which Flynn’s actions are truly harmful to democracy and the way in which they may impact our future and could thus be viewed as a fleeting news story utilizing dramatization, or “a news drama emphasizing crisis over continuity”, and fragmentation biases to entice readers.

Overall, though both articles cover the same breaking news story, they cover this topic in varying ways. The ABC News article views Flynn’s sentencing primarily as a single event and includes quotes from Flynn’s family and friends in response to special council Mueller’s statements. Meanwhile, the New York Times article establishes a greater overall historical context for Mueller’s investigations and Flynn’s role within them. However, could be viewed as having a slight dramatization and fragmentation bias due to the focus on various “characters” in the investigations with little regard to the greater impacts this issue may have on U.S. government and politics for the future.

Works Cited:

I have acted with honesty and integrity in producing this work and am unaware of anyone who has not.

Penny Pena

2nd Article Comparison: The Informational Biases of Michael Flynn’s Imprisonment or Lack Thereof

Exploring Bias #2- Wisconsin Democrats v. Republicans

The Huffington Post is a politically left-leaning news source and like other news media, it is not free from bias. I will be analyzing the bias present in the article, “In Stunning Power Grab, Wisconsin Republicans Pass Bill Weakening New Governor,” published on The Huffington Post by Kevin Robillard. This article comes after what was already a heated midterm election and adds to the long-term feud between the Democrats and Republicans.

The first type of bias in this article can be noticed in the title. Lance Bennett is his book, News: The Politics of Illusion, speaks about a journalistic bias that favors “dramatic and personalized aspect of events over more complex- and potentially more engaging- underlying political realities.” The dramatization bias can be seen in the title, “In Stunning Power Grab..” The author chose this title to use the dramatics of it to engage a reader and have them believe the event was more dramatic than it actually may have been. It also alludes to the fact that Democrats may believe Republicans are power-hungry and do not want the other parties to have any power.  

Throughout the article in addition to dramatic bias, the article shows bias in heated conflict and polarized forces, like Atkinson discusses in her book Combative Politics. The author states, “Wisconsin’s lame-duck, Republican-controlled state Legislature passed on Wednesday a host of measures designed to kneecap Gov.-elect Tony Evers, other Democrats elected to statewide offices and hurt the Democratic Party in general.” This is the first sentence of the article and he immediately pins the Republican party and Democratic party against one another. The author is using language in this sentence, and throughout the article, to make the Republican party look like the bad guy. It also uses the verb “kneecap” to add to the heated conflict. He uses this type of language to make it seem like all the Republican party is worried about is hurting the Democratic party.  

All through the article the author, Kevin Robillard, continually pins Republicans against Democrats like they are rival sports teams instead of political parties doing what they think is best for their state and country. This is continually adding to the bias of heated conflict and polarized forces. Near the end of the article the author states, “What didn’t flip was Republican control of the state Senate and Assembly, thanks in large part to the gerrymandered nature of the legislative districts.” This quote again shows that the author wants the reader to believe that this event is even more dramatic than it actually is. The article is taking advantage of the fact that his readers are already angry about the lost election and want to blame everything that is going wrong on the other political party, creating very polarized forces.

This conflict frame of dramatization, polarized forces and heated debate, is just adding to the already deep divide we have among political parties in our country. This type of bias is hard to recognize for either side because it tends to agree with what Democrats, or in another case Republicans, already believe.   

I have acted with honesty and integrity and am unaware of anyone who has not.

Ronni Winter


Works Cited


Exploring Bias #2- Wisconsin Democrats v. Republicans